Page 21 - Rural Housing Association Design Guide
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Design guide for social housing in rural Northern Ireland Considering the place: Rural Northern Ireland The greatest growth of urban communities came with the expansion of the linen industry during the nineteenth century. Villages and small market towns This included not just the development of large manufacturing towns but the creation of mill villages such as Sion Mills, Upperlands and Donaghcloney. Bessbrook is a particularly interesting mill village, developed by the Quaker landlord, The earliest recognisable urban communities in Ireland were established on sheltered coastal locations by the Vikings. John Grubb Richardson, along paternalistic lines, with high quality workers’ homes around village greens along with Many of them grew into sizeable towns, but some remained villages (such as Dundrum and Ardglass). Later fishing villag- social and recreational facilities but without a “pub, pawn-shop or police station”. es developed such as Glenarm and Portavogie. The growth of domestic tourism and travel in the second half of the cen- tury, often facilitated by the railways, led to further new coastal villages and towns such as Whitehead and Castlerock. It was the Ulster Plantation at the beginning of the seventeenth century that introduced a network of small towns and villages across much of the North, many of which subsequently developed into market towns providing trade and com- merce for the surrounding countryside. By the nineteenth century the lowland countryside and its farming communities were served by numerous small towns with shops and pubs, fairs and markets along with churches and educational and health facilities. Some of these, with the development of the linen industry subsequently grew into much larger urban centres. In the twentieth century some also became major centres of administration with extensive educational, health and recreational facilities. Many of these settlements, however, such as Keady in Co.Armagh, Rathfriland in Co.Down, Portglenone in Co. Antrim, Irvinestown in Co.Fermanagh, and Aughnacloy in Co. Tyrone remain modest size “market towns”, providing essential local services both for residents and surrounding rural communities. Especially in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries many landlords developed small estate villages, often of great charm and character such as Tynan and Seaford. Boyne Row, Upperlands, Co.Londonderry. These attractive and listed terrace dwellings were originally built to house workers of the nearby linen mill. A good example of early social housing. Throughout Northern Ireland there are settlements that have a very distinctive history and a unique character. For example Gracehill, a small village in Co.Antrim was founded by the Moravians from Central Europe in the 18th Cen- tury and retains a village core of extraordinary quality. 18th Century workers cottages at Loughgall, Co.Armagh. These dwellings are located within the Conservation Area of this Plantation settlement. Cushendun, on the Antrim coast, is another exceptional place. It was extended using distinct architectural styles (in- spired by Cornish fishing villages) to the designs of the Welsh architect Clogh Williams Ellis, early in the twentieth century. 20 21
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